Sunday, December 1, 2019

Reforestation Essays - Reforestation, Forest Management,

Reforestation The purpose of this written report is to inform the reader about the concerns and facts involved with reforestation. Reforestation began in Ontario after World War II. What happened was, professional foresters were assigned to an area and became responsible for its well being. Under the Crown Timber Act, long term management was prepared. Then the many steps needed to rebuild a forest began. Included in this report will be information on the effects of cutting and replanting, such as Carbon Dioxide, and Global Warming. Following this will be methods for planning a forest, and how they are conveyed before planting in a forest begins. There are many reasons why forests are cut down. One is to benefit economically, with furniture and home building. But there is also another reason. Arguments say "the United States could help slow the atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide by replacing old-growth forests with faster-growing young trees". A new study of young and old forests says how this is in fact not true. Loggers have said that new trees pull the carbon dioxide better than old trees, and this may seem true, but it is not. There is one point being overlooked from all of this. The older, larger trees can store much, much more carbon dioxide than a new tree could. By cutting and burning these magnificent seasoned trees, the CO2 is being released back into the atmosphere. These releases of carbon dioxide add up in our surroundings, only to intensify Global Warming. Although this shows what happens when one burns and cuts down old forests, one must still plant new trees for long term plans, not letting them grow for a few years, to then cut them down. There are many methods for planning a forest. The simplest method of replanting a forest is to leave it to nature. A suitable seed bed in which trees will readily take root is integral for successful regeneration. Reducing competition by eliminating grass, weed or shrubs is another requirement in securing a new cro p of trees. These will sprout to produce seedlings. Though the weeds were eliminated before, they still grow back, and because of this poor, quality trees will grow. Another method though, is to create a planned forest, where new conifers are grown from seed in a special nursery. Seeding is a reforestation technique used mainly in the Boreal forest area where fire or logging tends to leave no or very little seeds for growth. In specific cases, Ministry staff seed the area with treated tree seeds. Following this is the planting. In many cases, planting is the only means of initiating a new forest. Up to 80 000 000 trees are planted annually in Ontario on Crown and private land. Usually immature forests have to be tended to. Once situated, a new crop needs intermittent care for the next 60 to 100 years. This means continuing protection from fires, disease and insects and routine thinning to focus the growth on selected crop trees. Before a forest can be grown, certain procedures must first occur. Collecting and processing seeds is one of them. Tree flowers fertilized by blowing winds or insects generate seed, in a time of somewhere within 1 to 2 years. Seed collecting from the woods must be timed with periodically occurring good seed years. Angus, near Barrie, is where all forest tree seed collection is co-ordinated. Stock of seeds can value up to $500 000. Usually this is around 3 billion seeds from 59 tree classes. In summary of the aforesaid, trees are very valuable to the human race economically and for health. Without trees the environment could worsen to the point where we would be living on one large dessert. We must remember that forest do not grow as easily as they used to because of fires and other disasters. This is why many forests are planned, and cared for. Most of us will never now how they turn out because for a forest to completely grow, it needs within anywhere from 60 to 100 years or more. There are many reasons why we should have reforestati on. One being mostly that we need forest to live! Without forests, or any type

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

15 Century History

15 Century History The aristocracy of the medieval ages formed a symbiotic relationship with the peasants, a situation in which both parties contribute, although the peasant's contribution seems to be more strenuous. By analyzing primary sources, I intend delineate the function of the aristocracy in regards to the peasants, the attitudes and beliefs characterized by aristocrats, and the restrictions placed on them by their responsibilities to the peasants, as well as the church.Einhard's work, The Life Of Charlemagne, offers some excellent information about the restrictions placed on aristocracy. The document mentions several times Charlemagne's devoutness to the Christian faith and towards the papacy in particular.Beyond all other sacred and venerable places he loved the church of the holy Apostle Peter of Rome, and he poured into its treasury great wealth in silver and gold and precious stones. He sent innumerable gifts to the Pope; and during the whole course of his reign he strove with all his migh t (and, indeed, no object was nearer to his heart than this) to restore to the city of Rome her ancient authority, and not merely to defend the church of Saint Peter but to decorate and enrich it out of his resources above all other churches (Einhard, qtd.St. Peter's Basilica at Early Morning

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Lewis Dot Structure Example - Octet Rule Exception

Lewis Dot Structure Example - Octet Rule Exception Lewis dot structures are useful to predict the geometry of a molecule. Sometimes, one of the atoms in the molecule does not follow the octet rule for arranging electron pairs around an atom. This example uses the steps outlined in How to Draw A Lewis Structure to draw a Lewis structure of a molecule where one atom is an exception to the octet rule. Review of Electron Counting The total number of electrons shown in a Lewis structure is the sum of the valence electrons of each atom. Remember: non-valence electrons are not shown. Once the number of valence electrons has been determined, here is the list of steps normally followed to place the dots around the atoms: Connect the atoms by single chemical bonds.The number of electrons to be placed is t-2n, where t is the total number of electrons and n is the number of single bonds. Place these electrons as lone pairs, starting with outer electrons (besides hydrogen) until every outer electrons has 8 electrons. Place lone pairs on most electronegative atoms first.After lone pairs are placed, central atoms may lack an octet. These atoms form a double bond. Move a lone pair to form the second bond.Question:Draw the Lewis structure of the molecule with molecular formula ICl3.Solution:Step 1: Find the total number of valence electrons.Iodine has 7 valence electronsChlorine has 7 valence electronsTotal valence electrons 1 iodine (7) 3 chlorine (3 x 7)Total valence electrons 7 21Total valence electrons 28Step 2: Find the number of electrons needed to make the atoms happyIodine needs 8 valence electronsChlorine needs 8 valence electronsTotal valence electrons to be happy 1 iodine (8) 3 chlorine (3 x 8)Total valence electrons to be happy 8 24Total valence electrons to be happy 32Step 3: Determine the number of bonds in the molecule.number of bonds (Step 2 - Step 1)/2number of bonds (32 - 28)/2number of bonds 4/2number of bonds 2This is how to identify an exception to the octet rule. There are not enough bonds for the number of atoms in molecule. ICl3 should have three bonds to bond the four atoms together. Step 4: Choose a central atom.Halogens are often the outer atoms of a molecule. In this case, all the atoms are halogens. Iodine is the least electronegative of the the two elements. Use iodine as the center atom.Step 5: Draw a skeletal structure.Since we do not have enough bonds to connect all four atoms together, connect the central atom to the other three with three single bonds.Step 6: Place electrons around outside atoms.Complete the octets around the chlorine atoms. Each chlorine should get six electrons to complete their octets.Step 7: Place remaining electrons around the central atom.Place the remaining four electrons around the iodine atom to complete the structure. The completed structure appears at the beginning of the example. Limitations of Lewis Structures Lewis structures first came into use early in the twentieth century when chemical bonding was poorly understood. Electron dot diagrams help illustrate electronic structure of molecules and chemical reactivity. Their use remains popular with chemistry educators introducing the valence-bond model of chemical bonds and they are often used in organic chemistry, where the valence-bond model is largely appropriate. However, in the fields of inorganic chemistry and organometallic chemistry, delocalized molecular orbitals are common and Lewis structures dont accurately predict behavior. While its possible to draw a Lewis structure for a molecule known empirically to contain unpaired electrons, use of such structures leads to errors in estimating bond length, magnetic properties, and aromaticity. Examples of these molecules include molecular oxygen (O2), nitric oxide (NO), and chlorine dioxide (ClO2). While Lewis structures have some value, the reader is advised valence bond theory and molecular orbital theory do a better job describing the behavior of valence shell electrons. Sources Lever, A. B. P. (1972). Lewis Structures and the Octet Rule. An automatic procedure for writing canonical forms. J. Chem. Educ. 49 (12): 819.  doi:10.1021/ed049p819Lewis, G. N. (1916). The Atom and the Molecule. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 38 (4): 762–85. doi:10.1021/ja02261a002Miessler, G.L.; Tarr, D.A. (2003). Inorganic Chemistry (2nd ed.). Pearson Prentice–Hall. ISBN 0-13-035471-6.Zumdahl, S. (2005). Chemical Principles. Houghton-Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-37206-7.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Children's Literature - The Owl Service Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Children's Literature - The Owl Service - Essay Example Gardner’s story continues the legend into the modern era. Alison and her family along with Gwyn and his family are caught together in a generational re-enactment of the story that typically ends in disaster thanks to the magic of the valley in which they live. The story’s relationship with the legend can be traced within the language and structure of the individual scenes such as the one found at the beginning of Chapter 20 in which Gwyn attempts to convince Alison to run away with him. The passage in question begins with the changes in the atmosphere around the house. This atmosphere introduces the building tension of the legendary story and the conflict between ‘Lleu’, who is symbolically represented, and Gwyn for Alison’s affections. The oppressive atmosphere is suggested on a physical level first, opening with the knowledge that â€Å"the weather changed overnight. A wind came, dragging clouds along the mountains.† This oppressiveness is brought down to the human level by Nancy, who â€Å"went about in silence and did her work with a perfection that made the house unbearable† yet Alison is afraid to leave it for fear her mother may see her leaving her appointed place. This mother is an unseen presence in the seen, just as she is in the story, yet she is always watching, always aware of what is going on, â€Å"Mummy saw us up the mountain. She was watching through binoculars. She was waiting for me.† This ever-present, al l-seeing eye introduces the concept of being watched over by less-than-sympathetic supernatural eye without moving outside of the realm of the natural and the normal. This is what Jackson suggests is the heart of the menippean fantasy. â€Å"It does not invent supernatural regions, but presents a natural world inverted into something strange, something ‘other’. It becomes ‘domesticated’, humanized, turning from transcendental explorations to transcriptions of a human condition† (Jackson 1981: 17).

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Homosexual marriage Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Homosexual marriage - Essay Example Same-sex marriage first became a reality in America in the year 2004, when the Supreme Court in Massachusetts actually ruled that it was necessary under the equal protections clause of the states Constitution. Connecticut in reality began permitting same-sex marriages in the fall of 2009. In April 2009, Iowas Supreme Court ruled in favor of permitting same-sex couples to marry, also giving advocates an important first victory in the nations heartland and thwarting the notion that only the Northeast will permit it. 7 April 2009 the Vermont Legislature made the difference. â€Å"Jim Douglass veto of a bill permitting gay couples to marry, mustering precisely enough votes to conserve the measure. This step made Vermont the first state to actually permit same-sex marriage through legislative action instead of the ruling of court.† (Boswell, John) Two more states--New Hampshire and New Jersey--recognize civil unions for same-sex couples; an intermediate step that supporters say has made same-sex marriage seem less scary. New England remains pivotal in same-sex marriage movement, with a campaign under way that will extend marriage rights to gay men and lesbians in all six of the regions states by 2012. The meaning of marriage gets completely redefined when two men marry each other and the same has become an issue that has come to the limelight. Gay marriage is a serious threat and it challenges the nature too and this is because two men can never reproduce and take their generation forward. They can adopt a child but they can never fulfill the gap left, that gap can only be fulfilled by a mother. The divorce rates are extremely high when two men or women marry each other and research goes to prove it. Heterosexual divorces are much less than homosexual divorces and this is another reason why people oppose gay marriages. Gay marriages have also come under intense scrutiny with regard to the tradition that the world has been following for many years. When

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Cultural Investigation Essay Example for Free

Cultural Investigation Essay The paper will discuss the main aspect of a Comanche and what their culture is like. The paper encapsulates an interview from such a Native American and this interview will be analyzed with the help of other sources from the Internet. The paper will be followed by first introducing the Comanche tribe with their features and then go about analyzing the interview. The culture of the Comanche will be discussed in the light of how they treat their elders, children and their relatives. The culture also includes some of their important aspects of religion along with the language that they use. The paper will attempt to cover the overall aspect of the Comanche and their effect in the society. Introduction to a Comanche â€Å"The Comanche are a Native American group whose historical range (the Comancheria) consisted of present-day Eastern New Mexico, Southern Colorado, Southern Kansas, all of Oklahoma, and most of Northern and Southern Texas. There might once have been as many as 20,000 Comanches. Today, the Comanche Nation consists of approximately 10,000 members, about half of whom live in Oklahoma (centered at Lawton), with the remainder concentrated in Texas, California, and New Mexico. † (Wikipedia, 2006 ) From the above definition it can be understood that the Comanches are very old inhabitants of the United States of America and have long lived there. There are a number of reasons why the Comanches had left their older origin which is near Wyoming. The tribe had shifted to Arkansas where they are now inhabited. The reason why the Comanche is given a name like that is because it is believed that they like to fight and act as strangers to the other people. The origin of Comanche comes from a Spanish word and this is why it is used. They have always been a separate group and have not mingled much with the other tribes and other citizens of the country. Interview of a Comanche The name of the interviewee was Andrea Pahdocony who belongs to a tribe called Comanche of Oklahoma Lord of the Plains). The following questions and answers provide a summary of what their culture is like and how they live their lives. The questions and answers will then be analyzed along with other material to understand what their culture and beliefs are along with their values.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Causes and Effects of the American Civil War Essay -- American History

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Did you know that in the Civil War, America lost the most men ever? After four years and over 600,000 American lives, the Union (North) prevailed in wearing down and forcing the Confederacy (South) to surrender. Eli Whitney’s cotton gin, the Missouri Compromise, and the Dred Scott case contributed greatly to the Civil War. After the Civil War, the Southern economy was devastated with millions of homeless, while the northern economy boomed.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Eli Whitney created one of the first causes of the Civil. In 1793 Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin greatly increased the amount of cotton produced. The cotton gin cleaned the cotton by extracting the cottonseeds efficiently. In the 1800’s, 36,000 bales of cotton were exported, but after the invention of the cotton gin, 4,600,000 bales of cotton were produced. This could not be done with out the help of slave labor. Slave labor allowed the production of cotton to be profitable and the southern farms relied on slaves because they couldn’t plant and harvest more cotton without them. The southern economy grew dependent on slave labor and some areas of the south consisted of over 50% slaves.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As the tensions grew, the battle for free or slave states intensified. The Missouri Comprise decided whether Missouri would be admitted into the union as a state that would allow or prohibit slavery. This issue is due to the fact that Missouri doesn’t lie on either side of the Ohio River. As of 1819 any states south of the Ohio R...